Behavioural neuroscience
Main source: Lecture notes from Dr. Stephen Kent, La Trobe University, autumn 2001. See also: other sources.

"In another part of Chicago stood the institute for Nuclear Research, in which men may have had theories upon the essential worth of human nature but were half ashamed of  them, since no quantitative instrument had yet been designed to measure it." -Isaac Asimov, "Pebble in the sky", 1958. 

2.1 What is behavioural neuroscience?
Much of what follows is quoted directly from dr. Stephen Kent's lecture notes.

Behavioural neuroscience is the study of the neural basis of behaviour, with one of the main goals being to understand behaviour and experience in term of their biological substrates.

Psychology is the scientific study of behaviour. Psychobiology is the study of the biological basis of behaviour.

2.1.1 Premises behind behavioural neuroscience

- Man is an animal evolved from the other animals
- Injury to the brain can disrupt sensations, movements and thought
- Lesions to particular brain areas cause specific behavioural deficits
- The brain operates like a machine and follows the laws of nature

2.1.2 Imaging techniques

Functional brain imaging

- CAT -- computer assisted tomography
- PET -- positron emission tomography
- fMRI -- functional magnetic ressonance imaging

2.1.3 Human versus non-human subjects

Humans generally follows instructions, they can report their subjective experiences, and they are cheaper to use than animals.

An animal's brain and its behaviour is generally simpler than a human's. Insights arise from a comparative approach. It is possible to conduct research that cannot be conducted in humans due to ethical reasons. 

The Animal Ethics Committee has a principle of following the three Rs: Replacement, Reduction, Refinement. Animals are only used for worthwhile experiments that promise to advance our knowledge of the nervous system. All necessary steps are taken to minimise pain and distress experienced by the experimental animals. And all possible alternatives to the use of animals are considered.