1.1 Brain-Behaviour Relationships
The three functional units
- a unit for regulating tone; located in the brainstem
- a unit for obtaining, processing and storing information; located in the retro-rolandic cortex
Each of these is hierarchical in structure and ach is composed of at least three cortical zones, built one on top of the other.
The cortical zones
The primary projection areas receive or send impulses to the periphery. The secondary projection / association areas decode and prepare incoming information and prepare programs. The tertiary areas are zones of overlapping, where evaluation and programming occurs.
The law of hierarchical structure of the cortical zones.
The law of diminishing specificity of the hierarchically arranged cortical zones.
The law of progressive lateralization of function.
- case study
- HM, Phineas Gage
- lesion production - temporal lobectomy
- brain stimulation - ERPs, PET, fMRI
- brain recording - EEG (electroencephalography)
- imaging - CT, MRI
- neuropsychological assessment
- clinical - fixed or flexible battery
- cognitive - specialised instruments
Limbus is Latin and means edge / hem / border; the limbic system is the
border of the brainstem. It is the only region of the cortex with direct
connection to the hypothalamus. It is thought to be active in emotion,
memory and aggression. The limbic system consists of
1. the hippocampus
2. anterior and dorso-medial nucleus of the thalamus
3. cingulate gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus
5. septal ares
6. mammillary bodies
7. ? rest of the hypothalamus
We say that there are three stages of memory: encoding - storage - retrieval.
- severe traumatic brain injury
- chronic alcohol abuse
- epilepsy / temporal lobectomy
- degenerative disorders (DAT)
- anoxia (MCI, CO, drowning)