Agnosia -- (literally 'without knowledge') -- a
fundamental lack of recognition
Apperceptive agnosia -- "results from
damage fairly early on in the assembly line, before the perception is properly
constructed. If the raw material is not put together correctly, the resulting
perception will be so weak or wonky that the brain will not be able to match it
with anything it already knows. [...] People with apperceptive agnosia are often
affected in one modality only." (Carter, 1998, p. 188.)
Associative agnosia -- "is caused by a
fault in the later stages of recognition. Here the perception may be perfect but
the memories that are associated with it (and that are essential if it is to
have meaning) have either been lost or cannot be retrieved." (Carter, 1998,
Prosopagnosia -- not being able to
Tonal agnosia (or atonia)-- not being able to catch the "tone" of
spoken words, "the expressive qualities of voices disappear" (Sacks,
1985, p. 81); comes with disorders of the right temporal lobe.
(Receptor) agonist -- a molecule that binds to a
receptor and initiates a response like that of another molecule, usually a neurotransmitter.
See also: antagonist.
Agraphia -- unable to write.
Alexia -- unable to read.
(Receptor) antagonist -- a molecule, usually a drug,
that binds to a receptor and interferes with or prevents the action of a neurotransmitter.
See also: agonist.
Aphasia -- not being able to understand spoken words; comes with disorders of
the left temporal lobe or left posterior/medial parietal cortex.
Apraxia -- "[...] the inability to carry out certain acts even though
paralysis or weakness is not evident and comprehension and motivation is
intact." (Rosenzweig et al, 1999, p. 308).Mainy forms: limb kinetic,
ideomotor, ideational, disconnection, buccofacial, constructional, dressing,
gait and apraxic agraphia.
Cerebral ischemia -- disruption of blood flow
to all or part of the brain (e.g., heart attack or stroke).
Drug -- a substance that have pronounced effects when
ingested in small quantities.
Edema -- swelling of the cells.
Enzyme -- "'Enzyme' is the general name given to
any protein that catalyses a chemical reaction, i.e. makes a reaction
more efficient, or indeed make an 'impossible' reaction possible under normal
life conditions." (Easteal, McLeod, & Reed, 1991, p. 19).
-- a neurological disorder characterised by recurrent neuronal hyperactivity and
Exitotoxicity -- neuronal cell death caused by
Hypoxia -- reduction in oxygen
availability (e.g., asphyxia or CO poisoning).
receptors -- "[i.r.] directly control an ion channel. When they bind to the
released transmitter, the ion channel opens and ions flow across the
membrane." (Rosenzweig et al., 1999, p. 71.) See also metabotropic
Limbic system -- Amygdala,
putamen, thalamus, caudate nucleus, hippocampus.
receptors -- "[...] recognize the synaptic transmitter, but they do not
directly control the ion channels. Instead, they activate molecules known as G
proteins." (Rosenzweig et al., 1999, p. 71.) See also ionotropic
Ontogeny -- the process by which an individual
changes in the course of its lifetime.
small string of amino acid.
-- blending of sensory perceptions; seeing tastes, smelling sights, and so on.